YOU Tube….. But only if we say its okay

This week I decided to look into the rules and regulations of YouTube as a media platform and how they regulate their audience and the content that is uploaded. I use YouTube as my main source for music and recently I have noticed that it is very hard to find new music on YouTube that isn’t being hosted by ‘Vevo’, which is a company owned by Sony and Universal. I was trying to listen to Dr Dre’s new album but because Vevo has not yet uploaded any of the songs it is virtually impossible to find on YouTube. In the past it was guaranteed that someone would have uploaded a copy of the original song but now, in order to be allowed on YouTube, they have all been altered in some way. They are either slowed down or sped up a bit for the purpose of copy right laws. This is because in 2013 YouTube renewed a contract with Vevo and invested $50 million into the company. “Vevo holds the rights to music videos for most major music artists and is YouTube’s top channel partner” (Grant, 2013). In my experience I have found YouTube to be a media platform that is well regulated, it is not often that you come across extremely violent, pornographic or inappropriate videos. In YouTube’s community guidelines it states that any content which has nudity or is sexual, harmful, violent, hateful, threatening or content that has copyright infringements will be removed. YouTube also allows users to regulate their own content by being able to create an over 18’s account or putting certain restrictions on accounts for younger or more sensitive users. But what else is disallowed by YouTube?

Recently there has been several cases where YouTube accounts that have thousands of views or subscribers have been breaking regulations and often unknowingly. If a YouTube star is promoting a product whether it be a video game, make up or clothing but does not mention they have a financial stake in the company or are being paid by the company to do so then this is now against YouTube’s regulations. This is a very recent ruling by the Advertising Standards Authority that occurred in the UK after an Oreo ad featuring YouTube stars failed to sufficiently make clear that this was in fact an advertising campaign. The ASA said “The YouTubers’ video ads were very much in the style of their regular content posts and so it would not be immediately clear the Oreo clips were marketing communications”(Sweney, 2014). Now whether companies are just starting to realise they can tap into a new channel to potential customers where the content producers are mostly young kids or whether it is really about honesty to viewers, is hard to tell.

Another interesting regulation that YouTube enforces is not allowing users to upload drone footage for commercial use. However, even if you are just a drone hobbyist uploading videos on YouTube for personal use, you may still be breaking these regulations. This recently happened to a man from Tampa who received a letter from the Federal Aviation Administration saying “Because there are ads on YouTube, Hanes’s flights constituted a commercial use of the technology subject to stricter regulations and enforcement action from the agency.” (Koebler 2015). These would come in the form of fines and sanctions. This can become very confusing for drone users because clearly what is condoned commercial use is subjective to the FAA and in turn YouTube as a media platform.

Although YouTube has clear community guidelines and will delete content that is reported and then reviewed by YouTube and found inappropriate, in the YouTube terms of use they state that:

“You further understand and acknowledge that you may be exposed to content that is inaccurate, offensive, indecent, or objectionable, and you agree to waive, and hereby do waive, any legal or equitable rights or remedies you have or may have against YouTube.”

This is basically their way of saying that if we don’t get to the ‘objectionable’ content before you do, its not our fault and you can’t take legal action against us.

References

Community Guidelines, YouTube, viewed 30th September, <http://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html&gt;

Grant, R 2013, “YouTube renews contract with Vevo and invests $50M to keep it away from rivals”, Venture Beat, July 2, viewed 30th september, <http://venturebeat.com/2013/07/02/google-renews-contract-with-vevo-and-invests-50m-to-keep-it-away-from-rivals/&gt;

Koebler, J 2015, “The FAA says you can’t post drone videos on YouTube”, Vice Motherboard, 12th March, viewed 30th september, <http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-faa-says-you-cant-post-drone-videos-on-youtube&gt;

Sweney, M 2014, “Vloggers must clearly tell fans when they’re getting paid by advertisers, ASA rules”, Guardian, 26th november, viewed 30th Sept 2015, <http://www.theguardian.com/media/2014/nov/26/vloggers-must-tell-fans-paid-adverts-asa-rules&gt;

Public screens and the ethics of Street Photography

How often do you take out your phone if you are in an awkward situation or are waiting around for someone or something, just so it looks like you are busy or shouldn’t be disturbed. Does taking out your phone in a public space then create your own private space?. I know I’m guilty of doing this, its undeniable that phones and screens are a great way to pass the time, but they are also a great way to waste a lot of your time. Many public places use screens for this exact purpose, in waiting rooms, in city centres, shopping malls, even universities. Is it acceptable in our modern world, to instead of turning to the person next to you and saying hello, to stare at a public screen in silence?. Yes, in my experience, I think it has become an acceptable norm. However this is not always the case and public screens can also create positive interaction. An initiative that is trying to encourage this is called The International Urban Screens Society who want to create:

“Screens that support with their content the idea of public space as space for creation and exchange of culture, strengthening a local economy and the formation of public sphere”.

The organisation feels it is a new way to integrate art into urban public spaces using its relationship with architecture.

Another large issue that comes to mind when talking about public spaces, screens and personal devices is street photography. Many people, including myself, see street photography as an art form for expressing important issues in space and time and documenting life in a particular setting. For example, the photo below of a sailor kissing a nurse in the middle of times square became iconic for depicting real life World War II victory celebrations, and this in fact is street photography.

 – V-J Day in Times Square, a photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt, was published in Life in 1945 with the caption “In New York’s Times Square a white-clad girl clutches her purse and skirt as an uninhibited sailor plants his lips squarely on hers”

However, it is important to ask whether street photography is a violation of peoples privacy in modern society as so many people feel that it is. Although there are no laws against street photography and no presumed privacy in a public space, many believe it is a violation of ethics to photograph a stranger, particularly in any way they might find embarrassing or inappropriate. This I can agree with to an extent, I think posting a photo online that that person may find distressing or they just generally don’t like should be respected and taken down, as I know I wouldn’t be happy about it. An even larger issue is photographing children in public spaces as there are no laws that say it is illegal, however it is hard to know how parents would feel about it unless you were to ask. This debate may never draw to a conclusion as there are so many national security and surveillance issues in modern society. I do think there is purpose in instead of questioning artists about why they are photographing people in public spaces for artistic purposes, to question the government about their need to survey every second of public space and public life and whether the material that they capture and keep is ethical.

It is sad to think that if, back in 1945, people had been worried about the ethics of street photography this photo may have never been published and people may have never been able to see this symbolic photo which so powerfully conveys the feelings bestowed by every day people at the end of the war and helps us to better understand this historic moment in time.

References

About the Urban Screens Initiative, 2008. Available from: <http://www.urbanscreens.org/about.html&gt;. (30/09/2015).

Sutton, D 2014, David K Sutton Photography Blog, April 21st 2014. Available from: <http://blog.davidksutton.com/594/is-street-photography-a-violation-of-privacy-or-ethics/&gt;. (30/09/2015).

A Different Cinematic Experience

I love going to the movies, films truly are made to be seen on a huge screen, in a very dark room, with surround sound and lots of other people in that room to share the experience with. Recently I went to the annual Travelling Film Festival with my mum that literally travels all over Australia to show case international films at local cinemas to give people the opportunity to see award winning films they would normally never get to see screened in a cinema. It runs over one weekend in a movie marathon type set up with films all playing within half an hour of each other. I’ll admit I probably wouldn’t have gone if it wasn’t for my amazing mother who loves international films and all things culturally enlightening. The initial reason why she bought me a ticket was because there was a Spanish murder mystery playing, and I am currently in my second year of studying Spanish at University and therefore thought it would further my studies.

I met my mum at the cinema and she was of course, true to her nature, already immersed in conversation with somebody she knew.  It is a given that the audience for a movie at the cinema is always different depending on what the movie is, the movie was called “Marshland” set in the wet lands of southern Spain, the audience for this film was of an older generation, some of the people were what I would describe as ‘alternative’ but some were also very average looking. However I knew it was a very different audience to the people you see at the regular hollywood block busters. In fact as soon as we arrived at the cinema I spotted my old Spanish tutor. My mother and I sat much closer to the front than I would normally, mostly because her eye sight isn’t the best (sorry mum). It was clear that many of the others in the front rows had chosen their position for similar reasons.

This was a very different cinematic experience from the usual blockbuster experience, there was a short introductory speech for the film by the MC for the film festival which created a sense of togetherness and excitement within the space. As the cinema is generally considered a public space, there are certain rules of conduct. For instance one man was snoring during the film which is pretty frowned upon in any cinema and also just strange in the first place because we all paid a certain amount of money which allowed us to be there so I would conclude that he was wasting his money by sleeping whilst also disallowing others to fully enjoy the film.

At the end of the film everyone clapped, which rarely happens normally, but there was a sense that we were expected to clap because it could be assumed we were all there with a similar interest in either international films, Spain as a country, the Spanish language, murder mysteries and also just for the fact that it was a very good movie. It was so good in fact that I decided to stay and buy a ticket for the following film which my mum had already bought a ticket to. The next film was not Spanish nor all that international, it was an American art house comedy called ‘Grandma’, but I think the reason I stayed was for the fact that I enjoyed the atmosphere of this different type of cinematic experience I had never before been around. I hope that in 5-10 years exposure to international films is more widely available to smaller communities and society can start to steer away from the obsession with same old Hollywood films.

Netflix – My New Family Member

A re-occuring scene in my house hold consists of my mother walking into the living room seeing me staring at my phone screen, with Netflix playing on the television and my laptop open on the floor in front of me and I can already predict that she’s going to say “Are you even watching this?”. We have extremely fast internet in our household which allows us to be using the 3 iPhones, 2 laptops, 3 televisions and 2 iPads all at the same time. However when visiting the National Broadband Network website my street and the 3 streets next to mine are part of the ‘build preparation’ area and less than a kilometre away in a high density housing area it shows the service is available, which makes me wonder is their internet all that much more reliable and does this point to the logistics behind NBN’s rollout scheme. However, the more important questions to ask are: Has faster internet changed the way Australian families live and communicate?. Does faster internet mean we communicate less because we don’t have to wait as long to access what we want to and therefore spend more time online? or do new technologies and faster access free up more time for what is arguably more important, face to face interaction.

When I asked my mother and father their personal opinion and experiences with internet usage in our home, this is what I found. My father has a work office upstairs which is also where his computer is, unlike my mother, my dad is very technology savvy and has an Instagram and Facebook account as well as a website for his business and his work revolves around internet access which is why we have one of the more expensive data plans. Although this can keep him separate from the rest of the house, he said he feels like a time that does bring the family together is when we all watch a television show at the same time every week which creates conversation and interest. However, it is not always easy to find something we are all interested in on free to air television which is why many families find it easier to resort to their separate screens.

My mum has never had her own personal computer and regretted the fact that she can’t easily put the music she wants on her phone or have a device to watch movies. Our recent Netflix purchase has given her some of this freedom as it is an extremely easy and fast platform to use and also has resolved the issue of not being able to find something we all want to watch. Although we have not gone so far as to create ‘zoning’ around the house ( technology free zones) the dinner table is a place where phones are not allowed, like many other families. So, although technology can make it hard to spend time with family, I do think new technologies are trying to create the fastest, easiest way of having communal viewing in the home. 

Ethnographic Research

Ethnographic research can not be created without the help of others and their insights into subjective and objective parts of their real life experiences, this can also mean the collaboration of multiple authors (researchers). This is why Luke Lassiter (2005) states “Ethnography is, by definition, collaborative”, and explains that collaboration implies a constant conversation and not simply an interview technique where only one party is giving the information. Described in:

“Essential to participant observation is the need for communication between the investigator and the people being studied, an important distinguishing point between the social and natural sciences.” — Hortense Powdermaker, Stranger and Friend

We all know marketing and advertising agencies will pay big money for access to ethnographic research in order to know who their target audience is and what they are interested in, therefore making sales. For example, how would we know that everyone ONLY wants to watch television shows about cooking or home renovations without ethnographic research that tells broadcasters that the primary age of viewers are at a stage in their life where they are building and renovating homes. It also gives companies the opportunity to stick their product in the middle of the action and even give their viewers the opportunity to instantly buy their products directly from the television shows website. Over time tv ratings show producers what topics work in reality television and what doesn’t, when a trend is found, nothing is stopping producers from creating more and more of the same shows as they know from past examples it will receive high ratings. It is also extremely easy for ethnographic researchers to search hashtag’s on Instagram, read Facebook status’s and look at tweets to find out exactly how their audience feels about the latest reality TV show. Some shows in Australia like Q&A, Eurovision and Big Brother have even created their own live twitter feed which streams along side the show allowing viewers to share their opinions and more often than not their humorous comments, this just so happens to be the perfect tool for ethnographic field work. However their has been instances where twitter feeds live on TV have gone horribly wrong……

a-shocked-mr-bean

References:

Adams, M.A. 2014, This is why you don’t show twitter streams like on tv, FishBowl NY

Lassiter, L.E. 2005, The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethonography, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Television and The American Dream

This week I was asked to interview someone from a different generation about their experiences with television as a child and the memories it gave them about the spaces they watched it in and with whom they watched it with. I immediately thought about my mother who had an interesting child hood moving from Florida to Australia, Japan, England and then back to Australia all by the age of 10. My mother, Rika, was born an ‘only child’ in Florida, USA in the 1960’s during the era of the American dream, and as we know the television was a huge symbol for this ideology. Colour television was available in America long before Australia and having a television was a presumed norm for any average American house hold. She lived in a 60’s Californian bungalow style house, it was open plan living, another lifestyle feature not yet introduced to Australian homes. Living close to Disney Land, cartoons such as the Mickey Mouse Club were extremely popular, as she grew older she remembers watching The Three Stooges on the couch with her father and the 6:00pm news broadcast every night, although she did not have siblings to fight with about what would be watched, her father was always in control of the viewing material. My mother being born in 1955 never experienced having black and white television until she moved to Australia at age 8 and even then her parents did not want to buy a television straight away.

untitled

Californian Bungalow style house, cerca 1950, Source

When Rika’s parents moved to Australia they had rejected the whole memory and notion of America, it became apparent to Rika that her parents no longer wanted to be associated or tied to the American Dream. This meant that they did not want to buy another television for several years after settling in their new home. However after several years of begging and pleading her parents to buy a tv, Rika went backwards in technology advancement and her family bought the only kind of television available in the late 60’s, a small, black and white boxy television with no remote and no vcr player. The test pattern was a familiar sight and all programs usually ended around 10:30 with a maximum of 2 or 3 channels.

Upon reflection of my mothers memories I realised my personal memories of television as a child has a familial attachment to my dad making pancakes for my sister and I on a sunday morning and waking up at 6am to watch cartoons. Although it is safe to say that my mother and I have had very different experiences of television in the home, what with my experience of growing up with 3 televisions, 2 iPads, 2 laptops, 3 iPhones, Netflix and a Blue ray player which even now is becoming old technology, we still share a similar memory of watching cartoons with our fathers and them almost always having priority over the television….and the couch.

To media space and beyond!

My media space undeniably consists of a lot of Instagram stalking and Facebook scrolling, however I am personally not an avid social media ‘poster’ or sharer of my thoughts and experiences online which is possibly why I find it very difficult to write anything on the topic of myself. It seems to me that my current media space is bombarded only by the best and happiest experiences or aspects of my peers or strangers lives, but never include that fight you had with your friend or that failed grade or any failure at all really. Why is it that within social media it is unexpected or unusual to see a negative or unhappy post?. Is it socially awkward or frowned upon to post anything other than your best self?.

This leads me to question whether my media space is ever a true reflection of an identity or a life and in turn, what are the emotional and physical repercussions on someone who believes it is. I admit, I myself am guilty of only ever posting positive media about myself and also find myself thinking does no one else share the same problems I do? because they’re Instagram sure doesn’t look like it!. I suppose as a media and communications student you must always question and research the validity and honesty of the media space you are entering into, whether it be a news article or an Instagram account.